Table of contents
Manage your references
Use these tools to help you organize and cite your references:
Choosing a style
Because there is no one standard citation style used at MIT:
- Ask your professor or TA which style s/he prefers for the course.
- Consult a style guide for examples of using various citation styles to create in-text citations, bibliographies and reference lists, or use citation software to assist you in tracking sources used and building in-text citations and bibliographies.
- Use a standard style, such as APA, and be consistent with it throughout your paper.
- Ask for citation and paper-writing assistance at the MIT Writing and Communication Center.
Style guides to consult
Consult these print and online style guides for examples of citing sources in the text of your paper and in a bibliography or reference list. See also information about citation software packages supported by the MIT Libraries.
MLA: Modern Language Association [Humanities]
- MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing - Hayden Library, Humanities Reference, PN147.G444
- MLA 2009 Formatting and Style Guide (online from The Owl at Purdue, with many examples of creating in-text footnotes and works cited entries)
APA: American Psychological Association [Social Sciences]
- Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association - Hayden Library, Humanities Reference and Dewey Library Reference, BF76.7.A46
- Basics of APA Style Tutorial (online from the APA, outlining writing and citing guidelines)
- APA Formatting and Style Guide (online from The Owl at Purdue with several examples of in-text citations and reference list entries)
CMS: Chicago Manual of Style [various subjects]
- Chicago Manual of Style - Hayden Library, Humanities Reference and Dewey Library Reference, Z253.C532
- Chicago Manual of Style (MIT only, online subscription)
- Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide (online from the Chicago Manual of Style web site, with examples of citing various types of publications)
ACS: American Chemical Society
- ACS Style Guide - Hayden Library Reserve Stacks, QD8.5.A25
- ACS Style Guidelines (online from UW-Madison Libraries, providing examples for citing references in the text and the bibliography of a research paper)
CBE: Council of Biology Editors
- Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors and Publishers - Hayden Library, Science Reference, T11.S386
- CSE Style: Biology and Other Sciences (online from Research and Documentation Online by Diana Hacker; gives examples of in-text and reference list citations)
IEEE: Institute of Electronics & Electrical Engineers
- Writing and Speaking in the Technology Professions: A Practical Guide - Barker Library Stacks, T11.W75
- IEEE Editorial Style Manual (online PDF; "provides editorial guidelines for IEEE Transcations, Journals, and Letters." Includes citation examples)
- How to Cite References - IEEE Style (online from Murdoch University Library, with many examples of citing various publications)
NLM: National Library of Medicine or AMA: American Medical Association
- AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors - Hayden Library, Science Reference, R119.A533
- Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors and Publishers (online from the National Library of Medicine)
Various styles - the following resources provide examples of citing sources in several styles
- Research and Documentation Online - by Diana Hacker. Covers MLA, APA, CMS and CSE styles
- Citing References Wiki - Maintained by LexisNexis and includes examples from MLA, APA, and Chicago/Turabian.
- Mayfield Handbook of Technical and Scientific Writing