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12.000 Terrascope Mission 2024: Cite your sources

APA and Citation Tips

APA: American Psychological Association [Social Sciences]

You must cite:

  • Facts, figures, ideas, or other information that is not common knowledge
  • Ideas, words, theories, or exact language that another person used in other publications
  • Publications that must be cited include:  books, book chapters, articles, web pages, theses, etc.
  • Another person's exact words should be quoted and cited to show proper credit 

When in doubt, be safe and cite your source!


Website that's not a journal article

Rockefeller Foundation. (2016, September 20). 100 Resilient Cities. Retrieved from

Put in author of website, date accessed, title of document if part of large site, title of website, and url. If you can find date last modified, put that in. If the url is really long, put in the base url and give the search path you used.

Online Journal Articles

If there is a DOI: Ma, Xin (Cissy). (2015). Sustainable water systems for the city of tomorrow-a conceptual framework. Global Journal of Environmental Science and Management- GJESM 1 Issue 2: 159-188. doi:10.3390/su70912071

Put in author of article,year,  article title, journal title, volume, pages, doi.

If there is no DOI: give the link to the online journal's homepage, e.g. Retrieved from


Day, John W.  2016. America's most sustainable cities and regions : surviving the 21st century megatrends; with contributions by Eric Roy [and more].  New York, NY : Springer.

Put in author(s), date, title,place, publisher. The "citation" button for a book listed in Barton will format a book citation.

 Edited Books

Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Chapter in a Book

O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: A metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer.

Ma, Haibing. (2016)  City View: Shanghai. In Lisa Mastny (Ed.) State of the world : can a city be sustainable? (pp. 109-114. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Put in author of chapter, date. title of chapter, the word in, the editor name, book title, pages of the chapter then place, publisher.

Online Newspaper Article

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Personal Communications: Interviews and email

  APA advises to put this information parenthetically and only in the text of your writing e.g. (D. McGee, personal communication, July 1, 2016.)

Chicago Style would have them as follows in the list of references

Dr. David McGee, (professor) interview by Chris Sherratt. Cambridge, Mass, July 1, 2016, Interview 8, transcript.

Emily Martin, e-mail message to Chris Sherratt, December 1, 2015.



Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A. (9 November 2016). General format. Retrieved from