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Frameworks and Instruments
Global Reporting Initiative is an international independent organization that provides widely used standards on sustainability reporting. GRI standards are used by businesses, governments and other organizations to communicate the impact of their day-to-day activities on critical sustainability issues. GRI also offers guidance on specific sectors
grouped by 1) basic materials and needs such as oil and gas, coal, agriculture and fishing, food, and mining; 2) industrials including chemicals, pharmaceuticals, electronics, construction materials, and automotive; and 3) transport, infrastructure and tourism covering shipping, trucking, airlines and other industries.
International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC)
IIRC is a global coalition of regulators, investors, companies, standard setters, the accounting profession and NGOs. IIRC framework enables a holistic view of an organization by putting its performance and strategy in the context of its relevant social and environmental issues.
Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB)
A U.S.based organization that focuses on industry-based sustainability standards for the recognition and disclosure of material environmental, social and governance impacts by companies traded on U.S. exchanges.The SASB Materiality Map is an interactive tool that identifies and compares disclosure topics across different industries and sectors.
OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises
Provide recommendations for responsible business conduct in areas such as employment and industrial
relations, human rights, environment, information disclosure, combating bribery, consumer interests, science and technology, competition, and taxation.
United Nations Global Compact
The UN Global Compact is "a strategic policy initiative for businesses that are committed to aligning their operations and strategies with ten universally accepted principles in the areas of human rights, labour, environment and anti-corruption."
ISO 26000 is a guidance standard on how business and organizations can operate in a socially responsible way. It helps clarify what social responsibility is, helps businesses and organizations translate principles into effective actions, and shares best practice on social responsibility. It is aimed at all types of organizations regardless of activity, size or location. Available at Barker Library.
Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP)
CDP provides a global reporting system that collects information from the world’s largest organizations on their climate change risks, opportunities, strategies and performance, and the way in which they consume and affect natural resources including water and forests. The CDP Open Portal
provides access to datasets on disclosure rates, emissions, climate risks and related topics.
Greenhouse Gas Protocol
The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) is the most widely used international accounting tool used by government and business leaders to understand, quantify, and manage greenhouse gas emissions.
International Labour Organization (ILO) Tripartite declaration of principles concerning multinational enterprises and social policy
The principles laid down in this universal instrument offer guidelines to multi-national enterprises, governments, and employers’ and workers’ organizations in such areas as
employment, training, conditions of work and life, and industrial relations.
UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights
The principles aim to prevent and address infringement of human rights linked to business activity.
European Union -- Non-financial Reporting
The Directive requires public-interest entities (PIEs) in the European Union with more than 500 employees to include in their management report a non-financial statement containing information on their policies, main risks and outcomes related to as a minimum: environmental matters, social and employee aspects, respect for human rights, anticorruption and bribery issues.